In 2014-15, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) spearheaded a two-year Value Pricing Pilot (VPP) project to:
- Create a new regional parking database framework to be populated with both new and existing data
- Analyze regional parking pricing policies using land-use and transportation models
- Conduct workshops for cities and counties demonstrating local parking analysis tools and exploring case studies
- Review, report and present findings and recommendations
Partners in the Value Pricing Pilot included the Federal Highway Administration, Caltrans, ABAG, local governments, county transportation agencies, transit agencies and others.
MTC's Value Pricing Pilot Parking Regional Analysis Project used case studies, academic research, policy analysis and data analysis to examine the relationship between parking pricing, policies, and supply and demand in 25 locations around the Bay Area. Key findings include:
- Most locations studied have a lot of unused parking, even during peak-use periods
- Many locations don't have pricing policies that effectively balance parking demand across the neighborhood
- There is a lack of coordination in pricing between on-street and off-street parking
- Many parking requirements are not closely aligned with demand of the relevant local population
- When parking garages are included in transit projects, there's often a failure to analyze the relative cost and effectiveness of pricing or alternate modes
- Employee programs that charge for parking are the most effective in reducing driving
- Regional parking policies are a logical policy approach for developing the state-mandated Sustainable Communities Strategy
This report addresses the issues raised in the MTC Value Pricing Pilot parking project by itemizing the eleven policy questions identified in the study, and developing an approach to address each question. Academic research and best-practices relating to pricing, modeling and innovations within parking policy are reviewed in detail.